In Reducing UK’s Aviation Climate Impact, T&E recommends the path forward to set UK aviation on a net zero trajectory, which includes a ban on polluting aircraft for domestic routes in 2040 and a full replacement of fossil kerosene by 2050.
Zero emissions aircraft for domestic flights
Electric and hydrogen zero emissions aircraft (ZEA) are the cleanest option for domestic routes, which catered for 22.4 million passengers in the UK in 2019. T&E recommends increasing public investment in ZEA, paid for by a tax on fossil kerosene. Furthermore, there should be a progressive increase of the share of internal flights flown by electric and hydrogen aircraft from 2028 – culminating in polluting aircraft being banned from domestic routes from 2040.
Matt Finch, UK Policy Manager at T&E said: “A ban on conventional aircraft for domestic flights is necessary if the government wants to fulfill its Jet Zero ambitions. A 2040 deadline for polluting jets will help transform the UK into a global leader on zero-emissions aircraft. Electric and hydrogen aircraft should be supported with taxpayer money in the early years, before airlines are required to use them by law.”
Sustainable Aviation Fuels to power longer flights
Longer flights, for which zero emissions jets will not be feasible in the coming decades, should only fly on 100% sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) from 2050, made from waste-based SAF and e-kerosene, T&E said. Government policies should expressly encourage UK SAF production by providing loan guarantees for first-of-a-kind SAF plants, as well as implementing a SAF mandate on fuel suppliers.
The UK government has committed to “enable the delivery of 10% SAF by 2030”. This quota should be carefully divided between e-kerosene and waste-based SAF. T&E suggests a ‘twin-track’ approach that requires a growing share of both technologies.
Taxpayer money to support new technologies
Both ZEA and SAF development are in their early stages, and therefore require large sums of taxpayer money to help them become mainstream. To pay for the increase in investment proposed above, a kerosene tax should be announced soon, to take effect from 2025. Contrary to popular belief, jet fuel can be taxed on a large proportion of flights.
“Today, any motorist filling up their car’s petrol tank pays more fuel duty than any British airline. It’s time to finally tax fossil kerosene and use a large portion of the income to set the industry on a realistic path to net zero,” concluded Matt Finch.