But the failure to penalize VW in Europe is the tip of the Dieselgate iceberg with an estimated 29 million grossly polluting modern diesel cars now in use, a number that is still growing. Over four in five cars that meet the Euro 5 standard for NOx in the laboratory (180g/1,000km), and were sold between 2010-14, actually produce more than three times this level when driven on the road. Two-thirds of Euro 6 cars (most on sale since 2015) still produce more than three times the 80g/1,000km limit when driven on the road. 69% of the dirty diesel cars were sold in France, Germany, Italy and the UK. These member states also approved most of the polluting diesel cars for sale.