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The new law, already agreed with EU governments, also scraps the target for food-based biofuels after 2020. This means that European countries are no longer forced to subsidise food-based biofuels in order to meet EU’s green energy targets for 2030. EU countries still have the freedom to mandate food-based biofuels after 2020, but the law caps their contribution to the consumption levels achieved in each country in 2020, with a maximum of 7% of all fuels.
Laura Buffet, clean fuels manager at Transport & Environment (T&E), said: “Forcing motorists to burn palm oil in their cars because it’s supposedly green is appalling. It’s been a disaster for rainforests and wildlife, and it’s a major public relations disaster too. This new law voted today gives the Commission three months to put an end to European governments subsidising the highest emitting biofuels such as palm oil and soy in diesel. The ball is now firmly in the European Commission’s court.”
For advanced fuels the new law sets a de facto target of 7%. Half of that will need to come from advanced biofuels from waste and residues whilst the rest is expected to come from renewable electricity and other fuels. In reality the shares of advanced biofuels and renewable electricity will be lower because of multipliers of 2 and 4 respectively.
The EU’s Renewable Energy Directive was introduced to accelerate the uptake of renewables such as solar and wind but its transport chapter has promoted the use of food crops like palm oil, rapeseed oil and soy oil to make biofuels.
Biodiesel made from virgin vegetable oil is the most popular and cheapest biofuel in the European market with a market share of three-quarters in 2017. Of all biodiesel, palm oil has the highest greenhouse gas emissions – three times the emissions of fossil diesel, because palm expansion drives deforestation and peatland drainage in Southeast Asia, Latin America and Africa. Last year, 51% of the palm oil used in Europe ended up in the tanks of cars and trucks. This makes drivers the top (albeit unaware) consumers of palm oil in Europe.
Biofuels can be counted as zero-emission energy for climate purposes. If we would properly account for biofuels’ real-world emissions, road transport emissions would be 10% higher.