Figure 1: Drivers & impacts of Europe’s biofuel policy. Transport & Environment, BirdLife Europe, Friends of the Earth Europe, European Environmental Bureau, P.2, http://www.transportenvironment.org/sites/te/files/publications/Biofuels...
Figure 2: Modified from Oil Shales of the World: Their Origin, Occurrence and Exploitation by Paul L. Russell and UNITAR Heavy Oil & Oil Sands database. http://thetyee.ca/News/2010/09/09/OilSandsWorld/
Figure 3: Stockman, L.; Petroleum Coke: the coal hiding in the tar Sands. Oil Change International, January 2013, p.8, http://priceofoil.org/content/uploads/2013/01/OCI.Petcoke.FINALSCREEN.pdf
“Tar Sands fuels have GHG emissions of up to 49% higher than other conventional crudes”: Mui, S.; Tonachel, L.; McEnaney, B.; Shope, E; GHG emission Factors for High Carbon Intensity Crude Oils. Natural Resources Defence Council, Sept. 2010. http://docs.nrdc.org/energy/ene_10070101.asp.
“The official Commission study assumes that on average tar sands are 23% worse than conventional crude oil”: Brandt, A. R.; Upstream greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Canadian oil Sands as feedstock for European refineries. Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Stanford University, January 18, 2011. https://circabc.europa.eu/d/d/workspace/SpacesStore/db806977-6418-44db-a464-20267139b34d/Brandt_Oil_Sands_GHGs_Final.pdf
“Default values will save up to 19 million tonnes of GHG emissions”: De Buck, A.; Afman, M.; Kampman, B. (CE Delft); Van den Berg, J.; Otten, G. (Carbon Matters); Economic and environmental effects of the FQD on crude oil production from tar sands. Delft, May 2013, http://www.transportenvironment.org/sites/te/files/publications/2013%2005%20FQD%20environmental%20benefits%20CE%20Delft%20report.pdf
Figure 4: Partington, P.J.; Huot, M.; Oilsands, heavy crudes, and the EU fuel-quality directive. The Pembina Institute, Briefing note, March 2012, p. 5.
“It would add less than half a eurocent for a 50-litre fill-up or a maximum 1.6 eurocents per barrel of oil, but it would make the overall compliance with the target cheaper”: Kampman, B. (CE Delft); Van den Berg, J.; Otten, G. (Carbon Matters); Kroon, P. (ECN); Van Grinsven, A.; De Buck, A. (CE Delft); Oil reporting for the FQD. An assessment of effort needed and cost to oil companies. Delft, March 2012, http://www.transportenvironment.org/publications/report-administrative-burden-fuel-quality-directive
Figure 5: Stockman, L.; Petroleum Coke: the coal hiding in the tar Sands. Oil Change International. P.13.