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Although emissions of particulate matter fell across the EU between 2002 and 2011, 33% of European citizens still live in areas with higher particle content in the air than the EU’s permitted maximum. If the World Health Organisation’s stricter but non-obligatory threshold is used, 88% of EU citizens live in areas that are over the limit. Particles, which come largely from diesel engines but also from wood for heating, are responsible for health problems ranging from asthma to cancer as well as reduced crop yields and damage to ecosystems and biodiversity.