Hydrogen and other electrofuels like ammonia or ekerosene are vital for supplying zero-emission fuels to long-distance transport sectors like shipping and aviation. By the end of 2021, the EU will decide on new rules for the production of hydrogen and other electrofuels, the so-called Renewable Fuels of Non-Biological Origin. However, hydrogen produced via electrolysis is only as clean as the electricity used to produce it. This briefing details the key elements that should be introduced under the Renewable Energy Directive for these Renewable Fuels of Non-Biological Origin. Their climate impacts are addressed, as well as their impact on land and water. The impacts are not only relevant in the EU, but also in countries who could export these electrofuels to the EU.