• Clean and lean: Battery metals demand from electrifying cars, vans and buses

    A T&E study analyses the demand for battery raw materials, notably lithium, nickel, cobalt and manganese, between 2023 and 2050.

    Europe, like many other regions, is accelerating efforts to electrify cars, buses and coaches in order to decarbonise passenger transport effectively and reach its climate goals. Electrification at speed and scale is essential, with all new cars, buses and coaches having to be zero emission by 2035 latest.

    But batteries – just like renewables and technologies relying on green hydrogen – will require metals like lithium and nickel to produce. What are the volumes of these metals that are required to electrify European passenger transport? And how do choices – be it the size of cars, the technology used or the size of the car fleet – impact demand? This report answers those questions.