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How is e-kerosene developing in Europe?

February 22, 2024

As the most sustainable alternative to traditional jet fuels, e-kerosene is generated from hydrogen and CO₂. Unlike many other sustainable aviation fuels, the combustion of e-kerosene can be close to CO2 neutral.

In order to decarbonize, the aviation sector requires an alternative to fossil kerosene which can be scaled up to meet the fuel demands of the sector. Unlike the biomass feedstocks used for biofuels, e-kerosene uses a more scalable source of feedstock: renewable energy. If produced using additional renewable electricity and carbon dioxide captured from the atmosphere, the combustion of e-kerosene can be close to CO2 neutral, apart from some residual emissions due to the production and distribution of the fuel. 

A new law called ReFuelEU Aviation regulates the deployment of e-kerosene in the European market. Indeed, it makes it compulsory for all jet fuel suppliers to blend a certain proportion of e-kerosene into the jet fuel they deliver to EU airports, starting at 1.2% in 2030 and progressively rising to 35% in 2050. 

Transport & Environment has been tracking the development of the e-kerosene market in Europe. In its latest count, we have identified a total of 51 e-kerosene projects in the EEA, including 31 large-scale industrial projects and 20 smaller pilot projects. The map below tracks large scale projects:

Note: This map was last updated on 18th of April 2024.  

It is important to note that none of the major projects have reached final investment decision (FID) yet, and many projects are still running feasibility studies. Until FIDs are taken, the  projects’ capacity referenced in this analysis should be considered as hypothetical until they actually materialise.

For more information on e-kerosene, you can visit our full briefing and our FAQ.

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