EU cars CO2 regulation and plug-in hybrid cars

The first briefing evaluates the impact of the design of the post-2020 CO2 standards for cars on the evolution of the zero and low emission (ZLEV) market in Europe and particularly plug-in hybrid electric cars (PHEVs). The second one updates a previous analysis (published in August 2018) summarising how carmakers can manipulate future WLTP tests, and presents a detailed solution to stop test manipulation using fuel consumption meters.