What we do

Flying is one of the fastest growing sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the most climate-intensive form of transport.

  • Austrian Airlines' bailout 'climate conditions' explained

    The Austrian government has granted substantial aid to its flag carrier, Austrian Airlines. It is one of the many aid packages granted by member states to national carriers to respond to the Covid crisis, funding that we are compiling in our European airline bailout tracker. However, the Austrian Airlines package was one of the few to contain climate commitments, following strong public demand that money not be granted without them. This factsheet details those commitments, and how they can be improved. 

    June 30, 2020 - 09:15
  • Implementing jet fuel taxation in Europe today

    Research commissioned by T&E shows that nothing should prevent EU countries from agreeing bilaterally to tax kerosene today. The analysis details the legal and economic viability of implementing kerosene taxation in Europe, through bilateral taxation agreements - as a first step to reaching agreement on an EU-wide tax. The briefing summaries T&E’s recommendations on how to implement kerosene taxation today, based on findings from an expert study, Taxing Aviation Fuel in Europe. Back to the Future?, which is also available below.

    June 19, 2020 - 14:48
  • Revision of the Energy Taxation Directive

    T&E provided feedback to the European Commission’s Inception Impact Assessment for the revision of the Energy Taxation Directive (ETD). This briefing welcomes the overdue revision of the ETD as it is key in deploying Europe’s Green Deal. This includes removing the exemption for jet fuel taxation and effectively reflecting the CO2 impact of fuels in tax rates for diesel, petrol and natural gas. The revision of the ETD should send the right pricing signals to influence investment towards low emissions energy sources for transport.

    April 2, 2020 - 18:27
  • Understanding the indirect land use change analysis for Corsia

    This new report looks in detail at the assumptions and criteria used to determine the "indirect land use change" of biofuels under the UN's carbon offsets scheme for aviation emissions (known as Corsia). The report, commissioned by T&E from consultancy Cerulogy, reveals several biases in the choice of some crucial modelling assumptions and in the decision on the final ILUC numbers. This explains some of the big differences that can be seen for some feedstocks, such as soy and palm oil, especially compared to the Globiom analysis of 2016.

    February 3, 2020 - 16:08
  • Why ICAO and Corsia cannot deliver on climate

    Several years of efforts at international level have resulted in the creation of a global offsetting scheme for international aviation, known as the Carbon Offsetting Scheme for International Aviation (Corsia). Further rules for this mechanism were adopted by the UN aviation agency, ICAO, in the June 2019. This provides an opportunity to make an interim assessment of the mechanisms potential effectiveness, and to contrast that potential effectiveness with existing obligations on the aviation sector under the EU’s 2030 emissions target and legislation.

    September 22, 2019 - 22:21
  • Analysis of state aid to Ryanair airports

    An analysis of all EU airports served by Ryanair has found that almost one-quarter of these airports are likely to be receiving state aid. The analysis, which is non-exhaustive as we focused only on small airports, includes many cases where airports used by Ryanair are shown to be in direct receipt of public money from local authorities. Such state aid is helping drive the airline’s record emissions growth, potentially breaches EU state aid rules, and faces being ruled illegal as the European Commission begins a review of the guidelines covering state aid to airports and airlines.

    July 15, 2019 - 17:33
  • Legal analysis of implementation of aviation kerosene taxation in Europe

    Here T&E reproduces two papers from The Hague conference which set out the definitive legal situation surrounding the taxation of aviation fuel within and outside Europe. They were presented by Prof Dr Eckhard Pache from the Julian-Maximilians University of Wurzburg in Bavaria. They outline how taxing aviation fuel in Europe is possible today and urgently needed on both equity and climate change grounds and that, with ambition, all the barriers for doing so beyond Europe can be dismantled as well.

    June 27, 2019 - 15:40
  • Lelystad traffic distribution rules consultation

    The Dutch Government recently issued a decree on new traffic distribution rules for Lelystad which was also the subject of a consultation by the European Commission. T&E’s response to the consultation examines the various issues and notes that proper taxation of flights in the Netherlands would resolve capacity issues, reduce aircraft noise and CO2, and obviate the need to open Lelystad airport or raise the movements cap at Schiphol.

    May 21, 2019 - 16:40