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The first, on market based measures, explains that early action is essential to close the huge gap between what airlines say they will do to reduce emissions from their planes, and the level of reductions that are needed to help keep global warming below 2 degrees in 2050. The second paper on transparency identifies the problems of decision-making, preparation and openness in ICAO that have played a significant part in the Organisation’s failure to meet its obligations on climate change. The third paper discusses questions of effectiveness surrounding the work of CAEP, the ICAO Council Committee, to develop a CO2 (efficiency) standard for new aircraft types. Decisions taken so far cast doubt whether CAEP will fulfil its mandate to develop a standard that reduces emissions beyond what would have happened without the standard and thus make a meaningful contribution to ICAO’s “basket of measures” to reduce emissions.