The European Union’s (EU) largest climate change mitigation tool, the Climate Action Regulation (CAR), covers almost 60% of all greenhouse gases. It establishes annual carbon budgets between 2021 and 2030 for each EU country, covering sectors like surface transport, buildings, agriculture, small industry and waste.
Aviation is already a major and growing emitter. In Europe its emissions have doubled since 1990, and globally they could, without action, double or treble by 2050. The sector will have a substantial fuel demand well into the 2030s, 2040s and beyond, the period when our economy needs to increasingly decarbonise. This report puts forward measures to limit that fuel requirement, but ultimately the remaining and substantial fuel demand will need to have its carbon content eliminated. The process of cutting and then decarbonising that fuel demand is the focus of this report.
The main purpose of the analysis is to better understand the nature of the likely cost impact of Arctic HFO ban on Cruise industry and passenger ticket prices and in doing so, contribute to informed decision-making at the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). This study has analysed these costs for cruise industry using three summer 2018 trips of MS Rotterdam to the Arctic as case studies.
Electric and hydrogen cars rely on renewable electricity that the EU can produce locally. But, instead, fossil-fuelled cars are driving Europe's addiction to oil. Crude oil and petroleum products represent around a third of the EU’s total energy consumption. The EU imports around 90% of the oil it needs and this share is expected to rise in the future. Two-thirds of the EU’s oil is used in transport.
Fuelling Italy’s Future: How the transition to low-carbon mobility strengthens the economy shows that the transition to low-carbon mobility in Italy can improve the domestic economy, reduce spending on imported fuel, increase national energy security, reduce the exposure of consumers to oil price volatility, strengthen the macroeconomic resilience of the country and considerably improve the health of citizens.
The NGO Shipbreaking Platform and T&E have taken a closer look at the capacity available for ship recycling under the EU Ship Recycling Regulation. The shipping industry claims that there is not enough capacity for the safe and environmentally sound recycling for the EU-flagged fleet under this legislation, and state that it will be forced to leave EU ship registries so that it can find other breaking options outside the scope of the Regulation.
This report marks the third anniversary of the Dieselgate scandal. Whilst the scandal started with US regulators exposing cheating of nitrogen oxide emissions tests by Volkswagen, it quickly spread globally to affect almost every carmaker and every market in which diesel cars are sold. Subsequent work has shown that diesel emissions tests are not the only ones being manipulated – gasoline, CO2 tests and even those affecting safety systems are manipulated.
Which comes first, electric cars or the recharging points? How to tackle this dilemma has been the subject of considerable debate. This report examines the importance and availability of public charging infrastructure and how to efficiently expand the existing network as the number of electric vehicles on the road increases.
This report co-authored by T&E, Eurogroup for Animals, Fern and Human Society International undertakes an in-depth analysis of the Trade and Sustainable Development chapters in the so-called 'new style' free trade agreements between the EU and its partners.
This paper investigates the role that long-haul battery electric trucks may play in Europe to help achieve the Paris Agreement goal, to decarbonise road transport in the EU by 2050. The paper looks at the latest in market developments from EU and international truck makers.