This study, commissioned by Transport & Environment and undertaken by Cambridge Econometrics, shows that the EU’s dependence on crude oil and diesel imports has increased in the last 15 years (such that 88% of all crude oil is imported). In 2015 Europe spent in total around €215bn on crude oil and diesel imports.
In March 2016, the states surrounding the Baltic Sea, North Sea and the English Channel agreed to apply for the designation of these seas as NOx Emission Control Areas (NECAs) under the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). An 80% reduction of NOx emissions reduction will be required from new ships only when sailing in NECAs. Other EU seas are not affected.
The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) is currently engaged in a review of the 2020 target of its ship design efficiency standard (known as the EEDI). One of the main questions being addressed is whether the stringency of the regulation should be retained or amended. Another issue is the effectiveness of existing EEDI targets in driving design efficiency improvements.
T&E commissioned a study to monetise the external costs of trucks and to determine whether truck users are now covering a larger share of their external costs than in 2009 – when the first Are Trucks Taking Their Toll? report was published. The report finds that while there has been progress, a lot remains to be done.
In February 2016, the European Commission released a proposal to guarantee its gas supply security and is preparing another one to implement the EU’s 2030 climate targets for the transport, buildings and agriculture sectors. It is also developing a communication to decarbonise the road transport sector, to be announced this summer. To understand what role natural gas could have in achieving these objectives, T&E commissioned a study from Ricardo Energy & Environment to assess the impacts of large-scale use of natural gas in the transport sector.
T&E commissioned CE Delft to undertake a study to assess the usefulness, as well as the possible implementation and design issues, of CO2 differentiated kilometre charging. The report’s key findings are included in the briefing.
This study, commissioned by T&E from the IEEP, ICCT and TEPR, asks how can a post-2020 low-carbon transport fuel policy be designed that is effective and addresses the political pitfalls of Europe's pre-2020 policies.
There is little publicly available information on how the design efficiency of ships that have entered the fleet since 2009 has developed. The IMO has published the energy efficiency design index (EEDI) of a limited number of ships launched since 2012, but the sample of ships is small and the time period limited. The published data show clearly, however, that estimated index values (EIV) and EEDIs of ships are well correlated.
This report prepared by CE Delft for Transport & Environment analyses available data regarding the number of scrubbers installed on ships and the number of orders. It provides an overview of the current scrubber market and future expectation.