Aviation emissions are responsible for 5% of global warming and shipping makes up almost 3% of global CO2. These sectors have a CO2 impact equal to the UK and Germany and are continuing to grow rapidly – by up to 270% in 2050, by which time they could account for almost 40% of all emissions. Such emission growth will undermine reductions efforts by all countries and other sectors, effectively making the 1.5/2°C objective impossible to achieve.
The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is a proposed free-trade agreement (FTA) between the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) that, if completed, would be the largest bilateral FTA in the world, and transform transatlantic commerce. Trade volumes between the EU and US are very high, energy remains an important exception, largely due to the US ban or limit on crude oil and liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports. Unsurprisingly the focus of EU negotiators is to end these limitations, but if the hope of cheap energy is one side of the coin, there is another: cheaper fossil energy means higher carbon emissions from increased consumption while crowding out renewable sources, all of which runs counter to the EU’s ‘40/27/27’ climate and energy targets for 2030.
Nearly three decades after they were first proposed, the pillars of sustainable development are still absent from the EU’s trade policy. Sustainable development is included in the EU’s trade strategies, negotiations and agreements — but in name only. The current approach still falls short of real commitment and ambition. In this study, T&E and ClientEarth have identified nine remedies ranging from meaningful enforcement and dispute-settlement to the inclusion of sustainable development provisions in every aspect of agreements. The EU has an ambitious list of open negotiations — the opportunity is ripe for an updated approach that truly integrates sustainable development and trade.
The gap between petrol and diesel taxes in Europe is quite unique in the world and is the main reason why diesel engines have taken off in Europe and not worldwide. This study analyses fuel price and tax trends since 1980 and adds a specific analysis of diesel tax paid by trucks. It finds that in 2014 the gap in tax levels for diesel and petrol paid by motorists was €0.14/l, which is 30% lower than petrol per unit of energy or tonne of CO2.
In this letter, the Clean Shipping Coalition and the International Coalition for Sustainable Aviation highlight the absence of emissions from international aviation and shipping from the draft Paris COP21 agreement. They call on the UN leadership to act immediately with Parties to the UNFCCC to ensure that the language in previous drafts on aviation and shipping emissions is reinstated - these sectors must adopt credible targets and measures. International aviation and shipping emissions are growing rapidly, and their exclusion will critically undermine efforts to limit a temperature increase to 1.5/2 degrees.
T&E commissioned CE Delft to undertake a study to assess the usefulness, as well as the possible implementation and design issues, of CO2 differentiated kilometre charging. The report’s key findings are included in the briefing.
In this letter, T&E and 16 other groups highlight the absence of emissions from international aviation and shipping from the draft Paris COP21 agreement. they call on EU Ministers for climate change and Commissioner Arias Cañete to act immediately with other states to ensure that the language in previous drafts on aviation and shipping emissions is reinstated.
The recently adopted implementing rules for the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) include the possibility for fuel suppliers to use upstream emissions reductions (UERs) to reach the 6% decarbonisation target. This briefing contains T&E's recommendations for European Commission guidelines on UERs under the FQD. It outlines how the rules are vague and, without robust guidance by the European Commission and restrictions by member states, there is a risk of double counted and non-additional offset credits being used for compliance, seriously undermining the FQD’s effectiveness.
In July 2015 the European Commission opened a public consulation on an EU strategy for liquefied natural gas and gas storage. In its response T&E state that natural gas cannot deliver the decarbonisation that the sector needs to achieve the EU climate goals up to 2050. Investing in this technology would divert necessary resources from truly low-carbon alternatives in the transport sector and would create lock-in effects. Public resources for energy transition in transport should go where it offers the greatest public benefits, improved efficiency, and sustainable electrification.
An efficiency standard is a key element of ICAO’s basket of measures and is intended to deliver emissions reductions beyond business-as-usual. But on current indications the ICAO standard for new aircraft types will not affect any new aircraft types and will only cover 5% of the world fleet in 2030. In this submission T&E outlines its position that the EPA should ensure that any standard adopted ensures efficiency improvements that go beyond business-as-usual.