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WTO implications of reporting measures for tar sands under the Fuel Quality Directive

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To measure progress toward the FQD GHG emissions reduction target, the European Commission is designing reporting measures which will outline default values for the lifecycle GHG emissions of transport fuels derived from different sources, including fuels produced from unconventional feedstocks such as tar sands. Several questions have arisen whether the reporting measures and the inclusion of a default value for tar sands comply with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules and jurisprudence, namely the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and case law.

Report on the administrative burden of the Fuel Quality Directive

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This report investigates into the extra cost that the implementing measures of the Fuel Quality Directive - if they are adopted according to the proposal of the European Commission - will imply for the oil industry and for the whole supply chain. It finds out that - for a typical 50-litre fuel fill-up - the added cost for consumer would be of half a Eurocent.

Assessing grandfathering options under an EU ILUC policy

This report investigates how grandfathering provisions for exising biofuels production in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) can be best implemented to minimise damage to the environment.  The consultants also considered the economic and political implications of the various options examined. 

Regulated Slow Steaming in Maritime Transport: An Assessment of Options, Costs and Benefits

This report studies the impacts of vessel speed on emissions, technical constraints and other experiences with regard to slow steaming and current speed regulations. Moreover, it analyses the legal feasibility of speed limits and feasibility of implementation, possible policy designs and the associated social costs and benefits of speed limits.

Design of a (Lorry) Tractor for Optimised Safety and Fuel Consumption

T&E / FKA smart lorry cab design

With both safety and environmental challenges in mind, T&E commissioned an independent study from the automotive research institute FKA aimed at identifying the optimal shape and dimensions of a tractor (the part of the lorry that pulls the trailer), integrating new aerodynamic solutions and improving both active and passive safety.

Anticipated Indirect Land Use Change Associated with Expanded Use of Biofuels in the EU

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This study estimates the environmental impact of Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) associated with the increased use of conventional biofuels that EU Member States have planned for within their National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs).

Potential CO2 reduction from optimal engine sizing for light commercial vehicles

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The average performance of light commercial vehicles has increased during the last
decades. Due to this enhanced performance, the achieved levels of fuel consumption
and CO2 emission reductions are smaller than the engine efficiency improvements
realized in the same period. A possible way to realize this full potential is by

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