Recently a large number of studies have been published that claim that accelerated uptake of electrical vehicles (EVs) and fuel efficient cars in the market for automotive transport may have positive employment benefits.
To measure progress toward the FQD GHG emissions reduction target, the European Commission is designing reporting measures which will outline default values for the lifecycle GHG emissions of transport fuels derived from different sources, including fuels produced from unconventional feedstocks such as tar sands. Several questions have arisen whether the reporting measures and the inclusion of a default value for tar sands comply with World Trade Organization (WTO) rules and jurisprudence, namely the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and case law.
This report investigates into the extra cost that the implementing measures of the Fuel Quality Directive - if they are adopted according to the proposal of the European Commission - will imply for the oil industry and for the whole supply chain. It finds out that - for a typical 50-litre fuel fill-up - the added cost for consumer would be of half a Eurocent.
This report investigates how grandfathering provisions for exising biofuels production in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) can be best implemented to minimise damage to the environment. The consultants also considered the economic and political implications of the various options examined.
This report studies the impacts of vessel speed on emissions, technical constraints and other experiences with regard to slow steaming and current speed regulations. Moreover, it analyses the legal feasibility of speed limits and feasibility of implementation, possible policy designs and the associated social costs and benefits of speed limits.
With both safety and environmental challenges in mind, T&E commissioned an independent study from the automotive research institute FKA aimed at identifying the optimal shape and dimensions of a tractor (the part of the lorry that pulls the trailer), integrating new aerodynamic solutions and improving both active and passive safety.
This study estimates the environmental impact of Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) associated with the increased use of conventional biofuels that EU Member States have planned for within their National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs).
This study, carried out by Joanneum Research, identifies a major flaw in the way carbon savings from forest-derived biomass are calculated in EU law
as well as under UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol mechanisms.
Until a few years ago biofuels were considered a robust option for reducing CO2 emissions. However, over the past few years much evidence has emerged that this thinking is only part of the story and that it does not capture the full climate impact of biofuels.