This report investigates how grandfathering provisions for exising biofuels production in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) can be best implemented to minimise damage to the environment. The consultants also considered the economic and political implications of the various options examined.
This report studies the impacts of vessel speed on emissions, technical constraints and other experiences with regard to slow steaming and current speed regulations. Moreover, it analyses the legal feasibility of speed limits and feasibility of implementation, possible policy designs and the associated social costs and benefits of speed limits.
With both safety and environmental challenges in mind, T&E commissioned an independent study from the automotive research institute FKA aimed at identifying the optimal shape and dimensions of a tractor (the part of the lorry that pulls the trailer), integrating new aerodynamic solutions and improving both active and passive safety.
This study estimates the environmental impact of Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) associated with the increased use of conventional biofuels that EU Member States have planned for within their National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs).
This study, carried out by Joanneum Research, identifies a major flaw in the way carbon savings from forest-derived biomass are calculated in EU law
as well as under UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol mechanisms.
Until a few years ago biofuels were considered a robust option for reducing CO2 emissions. However, over the past few years much evidence has emerged that this thinking is only part of the story and that it does not capture the full climate impact of biofuels.
The average performance of light commercial vehicles has increased during the last
decades. Due to this enhanced performance, the achieved levels of fuel consumption
and CO2 emission reductions are smaller than the engine efficiency improvements
realized in the same period. A possible way to realize this full potential is by