Browse by topic: Publication, Climate Change and Energy, Consultant report


Analysis of estimated index values of ships that have entered the fleet since 2009

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There is little publicly available information on how the design efficiency of ships that have entered the fleet since 2009 has developed. The IMO has published the energy efficiency design index (EEDI) of a limited number of ships launched since 2012, but the sample of ships is small and the time period limited. The published data show clearly, however, that estimated index values (EIV) and EEDIs of ships are well correlated.

Study of historical trends in ship design efficiency

This first-time study of the historical development of the efficiency of new ships shows that, in fact, the efficiency of new ships has actually deteriorated since 1990 by 10% on average. This demonstrates the failure of market forces to reduce ship and shipping emissions and emphasizes the need for regulation.

Studies on energy crops and wood for bioenergy

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Two new studies, commissioned by Transport & Environment, BirdLife Europe, and the European Environmental Bureau, aim to provide new evidence on the availability of sustainable biomass in the EU, with a focus on energy crops and forest biomass. Here we provide two briefings, as well as the complete studies, to download.

NRDC report on increased tar sands imports to Europe

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Figures released in the attached study by the US Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) show that if Europe does not act, its imports of tar sands, one of the dirtiest fossil fuels, would likely skyrocket from about 4,000 barrels per day (bpd) in 2012 to over 700,000 bpd in 2020. 

Analysis of options for full implementation of the Fuel Quality Directive

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This analysis, shared in April stakeholder meetings in 2013 by the Commission, looks at regulatory options and financial and greenhouse gas impacts of implementation of the reporting methods of the Fuel Quality Directive.

The environmental effect of the ETS for aviation

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The European Commission has proposed to change the geographical scope of the EU ETS. This would result in fewer emissions under the cap, and consequently a smaller absolute emissions reduction. This note by CE Delft analyses how the cap would need to be changed in order to ensure a constant absolute emission reduction from the aviation sector. It finds that the cap needs to be 15-55% lower than the one proposed by the Commission.

Environmental and economic impacts of FQD implementation

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A new study by Carbon Matters and CE Delft shows that proper implementation of the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) with different values assigned to different types of unconventional fossil fuels, such as tar sands and oil shale, can shift investments away from these ultra-high carbon energy sources towards lower carbon ones, leading to global greenhouse gas savings. As such, the study underpins the need for keeping such differentiated values in the legislative proposal by the European Commission, which is currently subject to an impact assessment.

Low emission car measures under the EU’s CO2 regulations for passenger cars

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In 2009, the EU set legally binding targets for new cars to emit on average 130 grams of CO2 per kilometer (g/km) by 2015 and 95g/km in 2020. The way the 2020 target will be met is presently being considered by the European Parliament and Council following a Commission proposal in 2012. The Commission proposed to reintroduce a system of “supercredits". Supercredits, which proponents say will encourage supply of ultra-low carbon vehicles, also allow carmakers to supply less fuel-efficient conventional cars, weakening the emission target. This paper outlines the potential effects of different proposals for supercredits on the 95g target to help inform policymakers. It is based upon the results of an independent analysis of the options by Ricardo-AEA.