Transport & Environment contributed to a European Commission expert group considering the appropriate technical requirements if the maximum length of goods vehicles were to be increased to permit safer and more aerodynamic designs. T&E commissioned this report by Apollo Vehicle Safety to assess: the extent to which the Front Underrun Protection Regulation (UNECE R93) constrains the maximum length of cabs; what the implications would be if it needed amendment; and whether alternative regulatory approaches could allow a length increase without amending R93 or compromising safety.
Two new studies, commissioned by Transport & Environment, BirdLife Europe, and the European Environmental Bureau, aim to provide new evidence on the availability of sustainable biomass in the EU, with a focus on energy crops and forest biomass. Here we provide two briefings, as well as the complete studies, to download.
Figures released in the attached study by the US Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) show that if Europe does not act, its imports of tar sands, one of the dirtiest fossil fuels, would likely skyrocket from about 4,000 barrels per day (bpd) in 2012 to over 700,000 bpd in 2020.
This analysis, shared in April stakeholder meetings in 2013 by the Commission, looks at regulatory options and financial and greenhouse gas impacts of implementation of the reporting methods of the Fuel Quality Directive.
This study, by consultancy CE Delft, concludes that advanced fuel and emissions monitoring of large ships could help save owners and operators up to €9 million per year. These savings would come from the lower operational costs of using automated systems such as fuel flow meters or continuous emissions monitoring, which would monitor, report and verify ship emissions and fuel-burn more efficiently.
The European Commission has proposed to change the geographical scope of the EU ETS. This would result in fewer emissions under the cap, and consequently a smaller absolute emissions reduction. This note by CE Delft analyses how the cap would need to be changed in order to ensure a constant absolute emission reduction from the aviation sector. It finds that the cap needs to be 15-55% lower than the one proposed by the Commission.
A new study by Carbon Matters and CE Delft shows that proper implementation of the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) with different values assigned to different types of unconventional fossil fuels, such as tar sands and oil shale, can shift investments away from these ultra-high carbon energy sources towards lower carbon ones, leading to global greenhouse gas savings. As such, the study underpins the need for keeping such differentiated values in the legislative proposal by the European Commission, which is currently subject to an impact assessment.
In 2009, the EU set legally binding targets for new cars to emit on average 130 grams of CO2 per kilometer (g/km) by 2015 and 95g/km in 2020. The way the 2020 target will be met is presently being considered by the European Parliament and Council following a Commission proposal in 2012. The Commission proposed to reintroduce a system of “supercredits". Supercredits, which proponents say will encourage supply of ultra-low carbon vehicles, also allow carmakers to supply less fuel-efficient conventional cars, weakening the emission target. This paper outlines the potential effects of different proposals for supercredits on the 95g target to help inform policymakers. It is based upon the results of an independent analysis of the options by Ricardo-AEA.
Monitoring of fuel consumption and GHG emissions from international shipping is currently under discussion at the EU level as well as at the IMO. There are several approaches to monitoring, each with different characteristics. Important differences exist with regards to the costs of the equipment, operational costs, the accuracy of the measurements, and the potential to monitor emissions of gases other than CO2. Moreover, some approaches offer more opportunities to improve the operational fuel-efficiency of ships and fit better to possible future policies than others.The following report discusses these approaches.
Under the Dutch biofuels obligation, fuel suppliers are required to include a minimum share of biofuels in their overall sales of road transport fuels: 4.25% in 2011 and 5% in 2012. From 2011 onwards they have also had to submit an annual report detailing the biofuels they sell on the Dutch market. The data from these various sources are then compiled by the Dutch Emissions Authority (NEa), which publishes a selection of the results.